School voucher funds in Indiana go overwhelmingly to religious schools. While that fact has been apparent and reported upon for years, the degree to which voucher money supports religious institutions deserves renewed public attention in the wake of the demand by the archbishop of the Archdiocese of Indianapolis that schools under his purview fire teachers in same-sex marriages.
Discrimination against married gay employees is out in the open now. Racial segregation, whether produced through intention or structural factors, is also a fact. For instance, Roncalli High School—which fired two married gay counselors—had three black students in a student body of more than 1,000 in 2018–19 (public schools in the neighborhood had 7% and 12% black students). And discrimination is built into the practices that we tend to take for granted about private schools. They can limit enrollment to families who subscribe to their religious beliefs. They can steer away students with special needs.
The Indiana Department of Education releases an annual report (the Choice Scholarship Program Annual Report) that shows state expenditures on the voucher program. In 2018–19, Indiana taxpayers spent $161 million to send the children of qualifying families to private schools. Of that $161 million, less than six tenths of a percent (about $930,000) went to secular schools. Put another way, 99.4% of voucher money is going to religious schools.
How do we know? Our organizations, the state-level Indiana Coalition for Public Education (ICPE) in Indianapolis and ICPE–Monroe County, pored over the IDOE data in the choice scholarship report; you can explore our organization of that data here. Many schools’ names advertise their religious affiliation. Catholic schools make up 45% of voucher-receiving schools, with 67 in the Archdiocese of Indianapolis ($38.6 million in 2018-19), 26 in the Diocese of Evansville ($7.8 million in 2018-19), 20 in the Diocese of Gary ($10.9 million in 2018-19), 17 in the Diocese of Lafayette ($5.3 million in 2018-19), and 43 in the Diocese of Fort Wayne–South Bend ($28.7 million in 2018-19). There are 44 schools listed as part of Lutheran Schools of Indiana ($14.3 million in 2018-19). Of the 127 schools categorized as Independent Non-Public Schools, the names of most are explicitly religious, with Christian, Baptist, or Faith in their names. Fewer than ten are Jewish or Muslim. In the small number of cases that were not identified as religious through their names, we visited the school websites. Our examination of the IDOE data indicates that there were eleven nonreligious private schools participating in the voucher program in 2018-19. Since some of these had fewer than ten, if any, students receiving voucher funding, the amount received was withheld due to FERPA laws.
And what happens when that state funding is electronically transferred to the school bank accounts directly from the Indiana Department of Education? Since there are no financial reporting requirements for voucher schools, Indiana’s citizens have no way of knowing. Unlike public schools, which are held to transparency standards, private schools do not publish budgets and are not subject to public records requests. Neither are the private schools receiving vouchers audited by the State Board of Accounts. Are schools spending the money on teachers, curricular materials, and academic programs? Are they constructing new buildings, like the St. Nicholas School in Ripley County?
Are they directing some of it to the churches that historically supported them? Are they providing deserved benefits to their employees or outsized salaries for administrators? The legislators who lifted the voucher legislation from the American Legislative Exchange Council model bill did not think the public deserved to know.
—Keri Miksza, Jenny Robinson, and MaryAnn Schlegel Ruegger
On Saturday, August 24, state-level Indiana Coalition for Public Education held its annual meeting.
Marilyn Shank welcomed those assembled and introduced ICPE’s new president, Cathy Fuentes- Rohwer.
You can read Cathy's speech here.
1. ICPE’s board members are a powerful group of people:
Share our beliefs? Join us!
The keynote speakers were John Ellis and Michael Shaffer, authors of the book Unraveling Reform Rhetoric: What Educators Need to Know and Understand. You can buy it here.
Their presentation can be viewed here.
Marilyn Shank presented on behalf of ICPE lobbyist, Joel Hand. The ICPE legislative update slides can be seen here.
The last group that answered questions from the audience were:
The Q&A can be viewed here.
A Rule for Some: Legislators Care More about the Civics Education of Traditional Public School Students
Over the past month, there’ve been a few opinion pieces (here, here, for example) about how today’s youth are lacking proper civics education. It’s been this low rumble for quite some time now—so much so, that Indiana had a bill about it last legislative session.
It could be that “we who complain” aren’t in the classroom to exactly know what’s really going on.
Or it could be that there just isn’t enough time in the day with the many government mandates on our teachers’ and students’ plates. Nonetheless, federal and Hoosier legislators know that civics education is important and it is even a part of our national and state constitutions.
In order to get an Indiana state-recognized high school diploma (general, Core 40, etc.), students must take American government—it's the law. Furthermore, Dennis Kruse et al., (SEA 132 2019) amended the Indiana education code last spring to ensure that Hoosier students must also now take the U.S. naturalization test and study more about the Holocaust as “an enhanced study.”
Are these rules the best way to ensure civics education happens? Maybe? It’s best to ask an educator. They are the experts.
But, did you know that these rules are not being applied equally to all schools that accept public funding?
It’s important to note two things.
1. The naturalization test is not required in charter schools and private schools. That new bill passed this year only applies to school corporations, a.k.a. “traditional public schools.” Only “school corporations” are mentioned in that part of the bill and the general counsel of the IDOE confirmed that charter schools and voucher schools do not have to administer the naturalization test.
2. Private schools that accept vouchers must teach civics. The bottom half of page 2 of the Choice Scholarship School application indicates parameters a private school must agree to in regards to providing civics education. These parameters are pulled from the Indian’s code for mandatory curriculum.
Even studying the Holocaust and 9/11 is a requirement.
Concerned this is not happening? It's up to parents of private school students to ensure that these parameters are being followed. Parents must ask their children, teachers, and administrators. IDOE resources are limited and they have very little authority over private schools in general.
Why does our state care more about the civics knowledge of our public schools over other accredited schools that issue the same state-approved diplomas? Why is this a rule for some but not for others?
You’re going to have to ask your state legislators.
Vice Chair, Indiana Coalition for Public Education–Monroe County
This blog post was written by ICPE-Monroe County's former chairperson, currently ICPE state board member & MCCSC board member, Cathy Fuentes-Rohwer
An aspect of public education that often flies under the radar and, yet, is very much under attack, is adult education. Despite a rather small shoestring budget, Indiana (and, even more so, Monroe County) is able to provide a highly successful program for adult learners--meeting academic and personal needs, graduating adults with diplomas, equivalencies and/or job or career training. Despite a graduation rate of around 74% (cohort, according to the data provided by MCCSC), we have another adult education, privately run, coming to town: the Goodwill Excel Center.
I was contacted last December by a friend who was on the Indiana Charter School Board asking what MCCSC felt about the Goodwill Excel Center coming to Monroe County with their adult education "high school." Weren't we concerned or upset?
I had no idea that it was coming up for approval. I had heard earlier (maybe even a year earlier) that this was a center coming to help with students/adults who had not finished high school, had addiction issues, had been in prison, and that Goodwill could provide wraparound services for them. I (wrongly) assumed that there would be a public announcement of a public hearing regarding this new charter school-- in which our community could weigh in on whether we would like to spread resources thinner on another adult education/career training center competing with our own.
Then in this past legislative session, a friend in Indianapolis told me about the CEO of Goodwill Industries of Indiana, Kent Kramer, testifying before the subcommittee on school funding this past March in which he said that Monroe County was excited to have them come to our area. I went and watched it (You can watch it around the 50 minute mark here: iga.in.gov/information/archives/2019/video/committee_school_funding_subcommittee/).
Mr. Kramer said he had waitlists for his program at every Excel Center. He was asking the legislature for approval for 300 new seats so that they could open in Bloomington. He said, "Monroe County is an example we’ve identified a school that could support 300 students. We know fairly early on there will be a waiting list once that opportunity is provided in the community.”
Senator Melton asked him: “How do you determine that there’s going to be a waiting list before…”
Mr. Kramer interrupts, “Because it’s based on numbers. 14,000 adults that don’t have a high school diploma. And it’s based off of 9 years of going into new communities here. This model has been replicated in 6 other states now. We’ve got a history of what happens. When we opened the first one, there were 300 seats and within 6 months we had 2000 on our waiting list.”
I was really surprised by this conversation because I had only heard from a couple of community leaders about one big meeting in which Cook, Inc. here in town, had invited people to tell them about how great Excel Centers were. I hadn't seen any of the decision-making process.
Cook has been working with our schools in a very supportive way for some time. Our adult education program partners with Cook for a program called My Cook Pathway in which we help adult learners receive their high school equivalency (HSE, the new name for a GED) and Cook hires them.
We have the Hoosier Hills Career Center here in Monroe County which serves multiple counties and provides adults and youth with career and tech training and a number of pathways into the workforce, not to mention helping them become creative, critical thinking members of our community.
We are a fortunate community to have these public school programs meeting the needs of all learners, young and old.
Yet, the state legislature has created a separate source of funding for the Excel Centers in which they receive close to $7000 per student, while public adult education programs receive about $800. Despite these major disparities, our students receive quality instruction and our adult education graduation rates are excellent. We graduate 74% of our graduation cohort. Excel Centers cohort graduation rates range from 7% to 35% of their cohort.
When I spoke to a friend in Indianapolis who works in adult education, she told me that the Excel Centers tell the public that employers don't want HSE certificates (GEDs), but rather, they prefer Core 40 Diplomas. So, Goodwill's Excel Centers provide instruction in those and not HSEs. According to one woman I spoke with (not at an Excel Center), they will take students who already have HSEs and give them coursework to get another high school education...of a Core 40 diploma. It puzzled me.
We held a work session in March in which we could discuss Excel and our own public education offerings with Cook's CEO, Mr. Pete Yonkman as well as Mr. Dan Peterson. They wanted to bring to town a service center in which low skill or simple jobs would be provided. I think it's like, if you are a company and you need some work done, you can ask it to be done at this center? I'm not sure.
You can watch that session back here:
Before we came to the meeting, I decided to look into the situation. I called several Excel Centers and asked them about what they offered. I also asked if they had waitlists. No one had a wait list. The thing I thought sounded best was that they provided what they called daycare. They also said that they market to the community through block parties and ads and such. They had big mailers and advertisements. They went door to door in some communities to get students. Clearly there's money for marketing in a way that our public program can't provide. When I asked about the differences between Goodwill's Excel Center and the public adult education center, the woman at Excel said, "They do a GED and we do a high school diploma." She said that they offer Algebra 2 and Geometry. They do this by accelerating some classes to be 3 hours long, 4 days a week. She said, "That’s how they get all that you do in a semester. Last year the pathways changed.. so now they don’t need an ECA (end of course assessment/test) completion. Now they use the work-based project."
Then I called the public adult education or career centers in the area of Excel centers to see if having Excel there was helpful or harmful to their programs and offerings. Everyone said it was harmful. The trouble is, when we lose students, we lose precious funding. Excel Centers can market and advertise. Some adult ed centers questioned numbers and how one can get a 4 year high school Core 40 diploma in a matter of months. They talked about concerns with graduation rates.
During the work session, I raised these concerns. Ms. Christi McBride of our Hoosier Hills Career Center asked whether Cook/Goodwill would be willing to allow MCCSC to continue to do the adult education program as well as the technical training and certifications that HHCC offers, and just bring their career services center to town in order to provide those needed, low-skill manufacturing (?) jobs. They pretty much responded that it was all a package deal. But today in the paper it says that they don't necessarily need to be. So, clearly they wanted both.
After the rather contentious (and maybe I could have been more tactful?) work session, a few of us (Sue Wanzer, Dr. DeMuth, Mr. Rob Moore and Christi McBride) went to visit an Excel center in Decatur Township to check it out. Their superintendent essentially gave Goodwill the space for the center because their public schools were not doing adult education and it sounded good to them to have this company do it.
We saw classrooms and we met lots of nice people. That's the thing, it's not like people who work in this or other charter schools are not nice or competent or doing good work--although this record doesn't look good compared to our own---it's about a model of private... siphoning away from the public.
The day care was not really day care. But it's nice to provide a place for children of students. When we asked about what Path to Quality (Indiana's rating system for early childhood care), they said that, because the parents of the children are in the building, they don't have to be on that path. It's more like when you go to church and you leave kids in the nursery. Kind-of babysitting. Certainly not child care by the true sense of the word.
Nevertheless, we met some students who sang the praises of the program and some of the instructors in it. One man was grateful for being able to have someone watch his daughter. Another woman arrived in August (or September) and had had no credits with her... and she was already graduated with her Core 40 diploma and it was April! How can this be? All of high school math through Algebra 2?
Anyway, we met with the CEO of Goodwill and we explained that we already had an excellent Adult Ed. program and career center. We were concerned about losing the funding that would come with the loss of students and we were upset at the duplication of services. There wasn't really any resolution that I could tell. It was a voicing of concerns and we also spoke to the process and how we had not been involved in any decision making about whether or not Excel came to our county.
Excel is coming. Unlike other charter schools that have tried (and sometimes succeeded) to be established here in town, there was no public notice for a public hearing. There was no information given to the general public in which we could weigh in and say whether or not we thought this would be a good idea here in an area which already has much of this provided to our adult learners.
It grates on my nerves that the state legislature has created this competition for precious resources instead of a doubling down of efforts to help our public schools serve all students by providing the needed funding. It makes me angry that they prioritize the private at the expense of the public. Why should Goodwill receive $7000 per student while we get $800? Why do we not support the public schools that are already achieving on a shoe-string budget? Imagine what we could provide with that kind of money! We could maybe afford real day care and extended hours beyond what we have. We could maybe afford transportation beyond the bus passes we give and ways we help our adult learners get to school.
In the work session, we were reassured by Mr. Yonkman and Mr. Petersen that there was room enough in our area for both programs. But now the "My Cook Pathway" has been pulled from MCCSC and, presumably, will go to Excel instead of our adult education program. It should be that we can work together to provide the services and education that will make our community strong. I wonder why this program (Excel) could not be established in areas that do not have the resources that we have here. Why not some of these counties and rural areas where people are unable to get to such programs?
I hope that we will continue to partner with Cook in the many other ways that they help and support our public schools. They have been lovely partners for our public schools in so very many ways. I do hope that Excel becomes a good neighbor and is a responsible source of education and support services. I wonder what accountability there is, however, now that they are already coming.
But mostly, I hope our community will recognize the vital importance of public education and the need to keep public dollars in our common public schools, open to all, for the benefit of all.